Increased Precautions We're Taking in Response to COVID-19

LAST UPDATED ON 03/15/2021

As updates on the impact of the coronavirus continue to be released, we want to take a moment to inform you of the heightened preventative measures we have put in place at Millcreek Behavioral Health to keep our patients, their families, and our employees safe. All efforts are guided by and in adherence to the recommendations distributed by the CDC.

Please note that for the safety of our patients, their families, and our staff, there are certain restrictions in place regarding on-site visitation at Millcreek Behavioral Health.

  • These restrictions have been implemented in compliance with updated corporate and state regulations to further reduce the risks associated with COVID-19.
  • Options for telehealth visitation are continuously evaluated so that our patients can remain connected to their loved ones.
  • Alternate methods of communication for other services may be offered when deemed clinically appropriate.

For specific information regarding these changes and limitations, please contact us directly.

CDC updates are consistently monitored to ensure that all guidance followed is based on the latest information released.

  • All staff receives ongoing infection prevention and control training.
  • Thorough disinfection and hygiene guidance is provided.
  • Patient care supplies such as masks and hand sanitizer are monitored and utilized.
  • Temperature and symptom screening protocols are in place for all patients and staff.
  • Social distancing strategies have been implemented to ensure that patients and staff maintain proper distance from one another at all times.
  • Cleaning service contracts have been reviewed for additional support.
  • Personal protective equipment items are routinely checked to ensure proper and secure storage.
  • CDC informational posters are on display to provide important reminders on proper infection prevention procedures.

The safety of our patients, their families, and our employees is our top priority, and we will remain steadfast in our efforts to reduce any risk associated with COVID-19.

The CDC has provided a list of easy tips that can help prevent the spread of the coronavirus.

  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue and then immediately dispose of the tissue.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth.
  • Clean and disinfect objects and surfaces that are frequently touched.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.
  • Stay home when you are sick, except to get medical care.

For detailed information on COVID-19, please visit

Signs, Symptoms, & Causes of Oppositional Defiant Disorder

The first step to getting help is recognizing the problem. If you’re concerned your child or teenager may be suffering from oppositional defiant disorder, learn more about the signs and symptoms to watch for.

Understanding Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Learn about oppositional defiant disorder

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a childhood disorder typically defined by patterns of hostility, disobedience, and defiance directed at adults or other authority figures. Children with Oppositional defiant disorder may also display angry and irritable moods and act out in argumentative and vindictive behaviors and in most cases symptoms can significantly be reduced with proper treatment. While all children will participate in oppositional and defiant behaviors as they begin to test boundaries and try to assert their independence, children with oppositional defiant disorder take these types of behaviors to an extreme. These children will do things with the sole purpose of causing conflict or annoying those around them. They do not care about the consequences that could potentially result from any of their actions.


Oppositional defiant disorder statistics

Oppositional defiant disorder is believed to be one of the most common behavioral disorders diagnosed in children. While its true prevalence is still under debate, it is estimated that 10.2% of children will develop ODD. However, approximately two thirds of children who are given a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder will overcome their symptom, with studies showing that 70% of those previously diagnosed with ODD are no longer displaying symptoms by the time they reach the age of 18.

Causes and Risk Factors

Causes and risk factors for oppositional defiant disorder in children and teens

As is true of all behavioral disorders, the specific causes that might be attributed to the onset of ODD cannot be narrowed down to any one specific factor. Instead, it is believed that a combination of factors work together towards causing a person to develop the symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder. The following are some examples of the different causes and factors that may be attributed to the development of ODD:

Genetic: It is common for children who are diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder to have family members who also suffer from some form of mental illness. This fact suggests that there is most likely a genetic component that leads a person to have a higher susceptibility towards developing ODD.

Physical: The presence of abnormal amounts of certain brain chemicals have been linked to the existence of oppositional defiant disorder. These brain chemicals (neurotransmitters) work towards helping to keep the other chemicals in the brain balanced properly. When an imbalance exists, and messages within the brain are no longer communicating properly, symptoms of ODD may occur.

Environmental: The environment in which a person lives is believed by some to have a significant effect on whether or not he or she will experience the onset of ODD. If a child is surrounded by a somewhat chaotic home life where things like violence and arguments are prevalent, it would not be unreasonable to assume that the child could begin acting out at as a result. Similarly, if children are exposed to violence, or have friends who behave in destructive, reckless manners, they too are more likely to begin exhibiting symptoms that are typical of the onset of oppositional defiant disorder.

Risk Factors:

  • Dysfunctional home life
  • Repeated exposure to violence
  • Family history of mental illness
  • Family history of substance abuse
  • Lack of parental involvement / inconsistent parenting (e.g. inconsistent discipline)
  • Experiencing abuse and/or neglect
Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder in children and teens

The signs and symptoms of ODD will vary from child to child. There also tends to be a significant difference in how symptoms present in girls as opposed to how they present in boys. The following are various examples of different signs and symptoms that maybe be indicative that a child has oppositional defiant disorder:

Behavioral symptoms:

  • Excessive arguing
  • Refusing to follow rules
  • Frequently throwing temper tantrums
  • Acting hostile towards others
  • Blaming others for their own negative behaviors
  • Seeking revenge, even when unwarranted
  • Blatant and repeated disobedience
  • Willingly destroying friendships

Cognitive symptoms:

  • Easily and frequently becoming frustrated
  • Experiencing difficulty concentrating
  • Lacking the ability to, or refusing to, think before speaking

Psychosocial symptoms:

  • Low self-esteem
  • Anxiety
  • Rage
  • Frustration
  • Persistent negativity

Effects of oppositional defiant disorder in children and teens

Children who do not receive treatment for their symptoms of ODD may end up suffering from long-term effects that follow them into adulthood. Some examples of these effects may include:

  • Social isolation
  • Difficulty or an inability to develop and maintain meaningful relationships
  • Academic failure

In some cases, children who do not receive treatment will grow up to have conduct disorder in their teenage or young adult years. If it still continues to be untreated, adolescents with conduct disorder may go on to develop antisocial personality disorder.

Co-Occurring Disorders

Oppositional defiant disorder and co-occurring disorders

Oppositional defiant disorder can occur alongside many different mental illnesses, some which have symptoms that overlap one another. Examples of the most common disorders that co-exist with ODD include:

  • Anxiety disorders
  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Depressive disorder
  • Intermittent explosive disorder
  • Substance abuse disorders